Friday, 12 July 2013


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search Recife —  Municipality  — The Municipality of Recife From upper left: Old centre of Recife; Recife and its bridges; Aereal View of Boa Viagem Beach; Boa Viagem Beach; The Crystal Tower; Capibaribe River; The neighborhood of Boa Viagem; Agamenon Magalhães Avenue; Recife Sunset. Flag Nickname(s): Veneza Brasileira (Brazilian Venice), Capital of the Northeast and Mauricéia/Mauritsstad (after the Dutch colonization) Motto: Latin: "Ut Luceat Omnibus"' "That it may shine on all" (Matthew 5:15) Recife Location in Brazil Coordinates: 8°3′S 34°54′W / 8.050°S 34.900°W / -8.050; -34.900Coordinates: 8°3′S 34°54′W / 8.050°S 34.900°W / -8.050; -34.900 Country  Brazil Region Northeast State  Pernambuco Founded March 12, 1537 Incorporated (as village) 1709 Incorporated (as city) 1823 Government  • Mayor Geraldo Júlio de Mello Filho (Geraldo Júlio) (PSB) Area  • Municipality 218 km2 (84.17 sq mi)  • Metro 2,768 km2 (1,068.7 sq mi) Elevation 10 m (33 ft) Population (2012)  • Municipality 1,555,039 (9th)  • Density 7,133.2/km2 (18,537.9/sq mi)  • Metro 3,743,854(6th)  • Metro density 1,352.5/km2 (3,527/sq mi) Time zone UTC-3 (UTC-3) Postal Code 50000-000 Area code(s) +55 81 Website Recife, Pernambuco

Recife (Portuguese pronunciation:  ( listen), heh-see-fee) is the fifth-largest metropolitan area in Brazil with 3,743,854 inhabitants, the largest metropolitan area of the North/Northeast Regions, the 5th-largest metropolitan influence area in Brazil, and the capital and largest city of the state of Pernambuco. The population of the city proper was 1,555,039 in 2012.

Recife is located where the Beberibe River meets the Capibaribe River to flow into the Atlantic Ocean. It is a major port on the Atlantic Ocean. Its name is an allusion to the coral reefs that are present by the city's shores. The many rivers, small islands and over 50 bridges found in Recife city center characterize its geography and gives it the moniker of the "Brazilian Venice."

The Metropolitan Region of Recife is the main industrial zone of the State of Pernambuco; most relevant products are those derived from cane (sugar and ethanol), electronics, food, and others; thanks to the fiscal incentives of government, many industrial enterprises were started in the 1970s and 1980s. Recife has a tradition of being the most important commercial center of the North/Northeastern region of Brazil with more than 52,500 business enterprises in Recife itself plus 32,500 in the Metro Area which totals more than 85,000.

A combination of a large supply of labor and significant private investments turned Recife into Brazil's second largest medical center (second only to São Paulo); modern hospitals with state-of-the-art equipment receive patients from several neighboring States. Like all other cities in the Northeast, Recife is developing its tourist sector. The beach of Porto de Galinhas, 60 kilometers (37 mi) south of the city, has been repeatedly awarded the title of best beach in Brazil and has drawn many tourists. Recife's infrastructure is among the most developed in Brazil for travellers and business people, though there is wide room for improvement.

The city is also a renowned educational center, and home to the Federal University of Pernambuco, the largest university in Pernambuco. Several Brazilian historical figures, such as the poet and abolitionist Castro Alves, moved to Recife to attain their education.

Together with Natal these are the only Brazilian cities with direct flights to the islands of Fernando de Noronha, World Heritage Site since 2001.


Recife, seen from the International Space Station.

Due to the city's proximity to the equator, Recife weather is generally warm. Recife has a number of islands, rivers, waterways and bridges that crisscross the city. Recife is located amidst tropical forests which are distinguished by high rainfall levels resulting in poor soil quality as the rainfall washes away the nutrients. There is an absence of extreme temperatures and a cool breeze due to the trade winds from the Atlantic Ocean.

Vegetation Capibaribe River.

Recife has a tropical forest. Rainforests are characterized by high rainfall, with definitions setting minimum normal annual rainfall between 2,000 millimetres (79 in) and 1,700 millimetres (67 in). The soil can be poor because high rainfall tends to leach out soluble nutrients. There are several common characteristics of tropical rainforest trees. The city of Recife is formed by three islands (Recife, Santo Antônio, and Boa Vista). Between the islands are the rivers Beberibe and Capibaribe.



Capibaribe, Beberibe, Jiquiá, Tejipió, Jordão and Pina.


Boa Viagem, Pina and Brasília Teimosa



Large water supplier (Dams)

Prata do Meio and Apipucos Climate Downtown Recife under cloudy sky. Boa Viagem Beach.

Recife has a year-round tropical climate, with warm to hot temperatures and high relative humidity throughout the year. However, these conditions are relieved by pleasant trade winds blowing in from the ocean. Under the Köppen climate classification, the city features a tropical monsoon climate. January is the warmest month, with mean temperatures ranging from 31 °C (88 °F) to 22 °C (72 °F), with sun; July experiences the coolest temperatures, with mean temperatures ranging from 27 °C (81 °F) to 20 °C (68 °F), with rain. June is the wettest month and the second-cloudiest, receiving an average of 390 mm (15.4 in) of precipitation, and surpassed in cloudiness only by August. Indeed, August is incredibly cloudy in Recife, with a mere daily average of 3.5 hours of sunshine throughout the month. The driest and sunniest month is November, when maximum temperatures hover around 30 °C and an average of 48 mm (1.9 in) of precipitation is recorded. November is also Recife's only true dry season month, as all other months in the city are wet season months.

Climate data for Recife, Brazil Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Record high °C (°F) 37 (99) 38 (100) 37 (99) 35 (95) 37 (99) 37 (99) 32 (90) 33 (91) 37 (99) 37 (99) 38 (100) 38 (100) 38 (100) Average high °C (°F) 30.2 (86.4) 30.2 (86.4) 30.0 (86) 29.7 (85.5) 28.9 (84) 28.8 (83.8) 27.3 (81.1) 27.5 (81.5) 28.1 (82.6) 29.0 (84.2) 30.1 (86.2) 30.2 (86.4) 29.17 (84.51) Daily mean °C (°F) 26.6 (79.9) 26.6 (79.9) 26.5 (79.7) 25.9 (78.6) 25.2 (77.4) 24.5 (76.1) 24.0 (75.2) 23.9 (75) 24.6 (76.3) 25.5 (77.9) 25.9 (78.6) 26.3 (79.3) 25.46 (77.83) Average low °C (°F) 22.4 (72.3) 22.6 (72.7) 22.7 (72.9) 22.6 (72.7) 21.9 (71.4) 21.6 (70.9) 21.1 (70) 20.6 (69.1) 20.7 (69.3) 21.4 (70.5) 21.9 (71.4) 22.2 (72) 21.81 (71.27) Record low °C (°F) 20 (68) 20 (68) 21 (70) 20 (68) 21 (70) 15 (59) 18 (64) 17 (63) 18 (64) 17 (63) 17 (63) 19 (66) 15 (59) Precipitation mm (inches) 103.4 (4.071) 144.2 (5.677) 264.9 (10.429) 326.4 (12.85) 328.9 (12.949) 389.6 (15.339) 385.6 (15.181) 213.5 (8.406) 122.5 (4.823) 66.1 (2.602) 47.8 (1.882) 65.0 (2.559) 2,457.9 (96.768) Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 14 16 19 21 23 25 25 23 18 15 12 13 224  % humidity 73 77 80 84 85 85 85 85 78 76 74 75 80 Mean monthly sunshine hours 244.9 211.9 204.6 186.0 186.0 168.0 170.5 108.5 216.0 248.0 267.0 254.2 2,465.6 Source #1: World Meteorological Organization., Hong Kong Observatory (sun only 1961-1990) Source #2: Weatherbase (record highs, lows and humidity)


Olinda with Recife in the background. Olinda was declared a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1982. In Rua do Bom Jesus worked the British Town Club in London over the Bank, founded by the British. In 1928 there were five clubs in Recife of English origin.

The area around Recife was one of the first in Brazil to be settled by the Portuguese Crown. In 1537, John III of Portugal divided Brazil into hereditary captaincies (capitanias hereditárias, in Portuguese); the Portuguese realized that they had no human or financial resources to invest in such a large and distant colony, and decided to assign this task to private entrepreneurs, called Donatários (this system had already been successful in the settlement of the Portuguese colonies in Africa).

Because of several problems (the most obvious being the lack of support from the Portuguese metropolis), most Captaincies failed. One of the few to prosper was the Captaincy of Pernambuco, which was assigned to Duarte Coelho Pereira (the man who founded Olinda which has its historic town center considered a World Heritage site by UNESCO and became famous for expressing his enchantment with the beauty of the place, giving the name to the city).

"Campo das Princesas" State Government Palace. Legislative Assembly of Pernambuco.

Pernambuco prospered from the sugarcane industry (beet sugar was not industrially produced in Europe until the beginning of the 19th century). At the time, in Europe, sugarcane plantations could be grown only in Andalusia and the Algarve; in the 1420s, sugarcane was carried to the Canary Islands, Madeira and the Azores; the sugar from Brazil was very much appreciated in Europe. Duarte Coelho found in Pernambuco plenty of fertile land and an excellent climate for the cultivation of cane; all he needed was labor to work the crops and to keep the "engenhos" (rustic wooden machinery) moving.

From 1580 to 1640, the kingdoms of Spain and Portugal were unified under the rule of the former. Spain was engaged in a war against the Netherlands, and determined that the Dutch, who were the main distributors of Brazilian sugar in Europe, would be prohibited from coming to Brazil.

The Dutch decided to invade several sugar producing cities in Brazil, including Salvador and Natal. From 1630 to 1654, they took control of Recife and Olinda, making Recife the new capital of Dutch Brazil, the city of Mauritsstad. During this period, Mauritsstad became one of the most cosmopolitan cities of the world. Unlike the Portuguese, the Dutch did not prohibit Judaism. The first Jewish community and the first synagogue in the Americas—Kahal Zur Israel Synagogue—was founded in the city.

The inhabitants fought on their own to expel the Dutch, being helped by the involvement of the Dutch in the First Anglo-Dutch War. This was known as the Insurreição Pernambucana (Pernambucan Insurrection). Most of the Jews fled to Amsterdam; a small number fled to New Amsterdam (now known as New York City), establishing the first Jewish community there.

During the 18th century, riots spread throughout the city, in which the rich farmers of Olinda and the traders from Recife clashed. Recife had a clear advantage in relation to Olinda: Olinda has no harbour, while Recife's Harbor is one of the largest on the Atlantic Ocean. Recife's victory asserted the supremacy of its bourgeoisie over the decadent sugar aristocrats of Olinda. This was a decisive factor for Recife's growth. Recife is now a large city whereas Olinda is a small historical town. Recife is a historical city, distinguished by the opulence of its colonial buildings, with its colonization rooted in different nations; Portugal, the Netherlands, France, England.


See also: Largest Cities of Northeast Region, Brazil and Demographics of Brazil Capibaribe River. Modern Recife. The neighborhood of Boa Viagem.

The Recife metropolitan area is the 5th most populous of Brazil, after São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Belo Horizonte and Porto Alegre, and the 1st in the Northeast region. The most populous neighborhoods of Recife in 2008 were Boa Viagem (100,388), Casa Amarela (69,134), and Várzea (64,512).

According to the 2010 IBGE Census, there were 1,472,202 people residing in the city of Recife. The census revealed the following numbers: 754,674 Brown (Multiracial) people (49.1%), 636,864 White people (41.4%), 127,789 Black people (8.3%), 14,696 Asian people (1%), 3,665 Amerindian people (0.2%).

In 2010, the city of Recife was the 9th most populous city in Brazil.

In 2010, the city had 268,160 opposite-sex couples and 1,004 same-sex couples. The population of Recife was 53.8% female and 46.2% male.


The Patroness Saint of Recife is Our Lady of Mount Carmel (Nossa Senhora do Carmo), dating back one hundred years ago (1909). Every July 16, her day, she is remembered by the Catholics in Recife, in her church.

Religion Percentage (%) Number Catholic Church 54.32 835.337 Protestant 24.99 384.303 No religion 14.59 224.401 Spiritist 3.56 54.788 Other Christian religiosities 1.59 24.474 Umbanda, Candomblé and other Afro-religions 0.48 7.434 Judaism 0.08 1.286 Buddhism 0.04 641 Indigenous traditions 0.01 251 Islam 0.004 69 Hinduism 0.002 38

Source: IBGE 2010.


Atlântico Sul Shipyard, the biggest shipyard on the Southern Hemisphere, located in Industrial Port Complex of Suape. Agamenon Magalhães Avenue.

According to 2008 IBGE statistics, the GDP was at R$ 22,452,492,000. And the GDP per capita was at R$ 14,485.

Recife is one of Brazil's prime business centers, largely because it has one International Airport and two International ports. One is located in the town itself, and the other, the port of Suape, is located about 40 kilometres (25 mi) away. Just south of Recife is the region's main industrial area, where the following industries can be found: brewing and canning, automotive electronics, tube manufacturing, chocolate manufacturing, textiles, etc.

Recife has shared in the prosperity of Northeastern Brazil that resulted from development promoted after 1960 by Sudene (Superintendência para o Desenvolvimento do Nordeste), a federal organization. Although its retail and wholesale trade have grown in response to the region's increases in population and wealth, the market area and the walkways of the city's bridges are crowded with vendors selling small items.

Information technology industry Digital Port on the far end.

Recife has an area dedicated to information technology called "Porto Digital" (Digital Port) with more than 90 companies and 3,000 High Tech Jobs. It was founded in July 2000 and has since attracted major investments. Generating some R$10 billion (Brazilian Reais) a year, it produces technology that is exported to Japan, China, among other countries. Software manufacturing is the main activity in the Porto Digital. The Porto Digital cluster comprises small and medium companies, but multinationals like Accenture, Motorola, Samsung, Dell and Sun Microsystems are also installed in Porto Digital. IBM and Microsoft transferred their regional headquarters to Recife.

Porto Digital's startups can count on a ready pool of talent, courtesy of the Federal University of Pernambuco (UFPE), which boasts one of the best computer-science departments in all of Latin America. The school began teaching programmers to use Sun Microsystems Inc.'s (SUNW) Java language in 1996, the year it was introduced. Professors at the school also teamed up to launch Centro de Estudos e Sistemas Avançados do Recife (C.E.S.A.R), a business incubator that has played a vital role in the birth of some 30 companies.

Medical facilities Memorial of Medicine in Derby district. Recife has the 2nd largest medical pool in Brazil, after São Paulo.

The Metropolitan Region of Recife has the 2nd largest medical pool in Brazil, after São Paulo. Together they make up 417 hospitals and clinics with 72,000 employees in the Metro Area and more than 120,000 in the State of Pernambuco. The medical pool offers a total of 8,990 beds and, according to the Union of the Hospitals of Pernambuco, recorded in the year 2000 an invoicing of R$220 million (Brazilian Reals). It is thanks to the pool that Pernambuco has access to more computed tomography devices than more developed countries such as Canada or France.

A large portion of the modern hospitals included in the pool are located between the neighbourhoods of Derby and of the Ilha do Leite. The Hospital Real Português de Beneficência Portuguesa em Pernambuco, or "Hospital Português" (Portuguese Hospital) for short, is one of the most renowned hospitals in the country. Many people from neighbouring states go to Recife for treatment, as it has the largest and best medical facilities in the North–Northeast of Brazil. Recife has three universities for medicine, 2 public, Federal University of Pernambuco and University of Pernambuco; and 1 private, Escola Pernambucana de Medicina FBV/IMIP (Medical School of Pernambuco).

Logistics center Typical white taxi of Recife. Pedestrian separation structure in Recife. Bicycle path in Recife.

Due to its ports, airport, and geographic location in the northeastern region of Brazil, Recife is considered one of the biggest logistics centers in Brazil. Logistic and Communications Economic sector employees 4% of the people in Recife, 12,3% in Jaboatão dos Guararapes and over 9% in the Metropolitan Area. These numbers could increase by the end of 2010 with the conclusion of the Transnordestina (main NE Trainline with a 1,800/1,118 km/mi extension, which will cross 3 and connect 7 States (34 municipalities in Pernambuco alone) products with Suape port (PE) and Pecem Port (CE)) with costs that are estimated to be around 4.5 BR$.

Recife has historically benefited from its central location in the Northeast region. In a 200-mile (320 km) radius from Recife, it is possible to find four state capitals, two internationals and three regional airports, five international ports, 12 million people, 51% of the research centres of Northeast and 35% of the region's GDP. Similarly, in a 500-mile (800 km) radius there are seven state capitals, five international and five regional airports, nine international ports and two fluvial ports.

Convention centres

Many events taking place during the year include:

O Virtuosi, Festival International de Musica de Pernambuco (International Music Festival); O Mimo, Mostra International de Musica em Olinda (International Music Show in Olinda); A feira da Musica Brasil/Porto Musical (Brasil Music Port); A Fispal Recife, Feira Internacional da Alimentacao (International Food Festival); Recife and Olinda Carnival.

And because of its geographic location, tourism and city infrastructure, Recife's Convention Centres are of a high standard:

Centro de Convenções de Pernambuco (Pernambuco Convention Centre)

The 3rd largest convention centre in Brazil.

Centro de Convenções da UFPE (Federal University of Pernambuco Convention Centre)

Modern theatre with 1,931 seats and 2,071 square metres of exposition area located in the University Campus.

Tourism and recreation

Resort in Muro Alto Beach.

The celebrations, holidays and other events are numerous during the whole year. Thus the New Year begins at the beach, Praia de Boa Viagem and in Old Recife. The carnival of Recife and Olinda (which has its historic town center considered world heritage site by UNESCO in 1982) begins many weeks ahead in December with innumerable balls and parades.

Aerial view of Old Recife.

In the city, the carnival festivities begin in December, as locals begin preparing for the official Carnival, which starts the week before Ash Wednesday. The pre-Carnival parties usually consist of percussion groups practicing in local clubs, city streets and squares, and even Carnival balls. There is a variety of rhythms from different cultures. Carnival officially starts with the Galo da Madrugada, a party in Downtown Recife attracting many people from several States of Brazil, and other parts of the world.

Recife has many quality 3, 4 and 5-Star International Hotels as well Pousadas (traditional Bed & breakfast) and Apart-Hotels totaling more than 11,500 bedrooms and this number increase to over 30,000 in the metropolitan area of Recife.

Santa Isabel Theater.

Mercado de São José (Market of Saint Joseph) is an old, iron construction with a popular market nearby. In the Fort Cinco Pontes (Fort of Five Points) is the state museum, (Museu do Estado de Pernambuco). At the rectangular Pátio de São Pedro are the Cathedral São Pedro (Cathedral of Saint Peter) dating from the year 1782 and restored colonial houses, with numerous restaurants, bistros and bars. In the Bairro Santo Antônio (Saint Anthony Neighborhood), at the meeting place of the rivers Capibaribe and Beberibe, is the Praça da República (Square of the Republic) with the Teatro Santa Isabel (Theatre of Saint Isabel), with its neoclassic front - well worth seeing, the Law Courts, and the Palácio da Justiça (Palace of the Justice). Casa da Cultura (House of Culture) is an old prison that has been converted into a cultural space and shopping centre.

Golden chapel.

Built between 1835 and 1855, the Malakoff Tower, a monument constructed in Tunisian style, which used to be an observatory and now is a cultural centre and a place for popular gatherings. It is located at Arsenal da Marinha Square. It has been registered as a Historical Patrimony and was named after a similar monument on Crimean peninsula, used as a defence center for Sebastopol.

Recife has a zoo called Dois Irmãos Park, 387 hectares of Atlantic Forest reserve and 14 hectares of botanical gardens. There are also 800 wild animals, the Natural Science Museum and various ecological trails. The metropolitan area has also a giant water park 20 km (12 mi) North of Recife, called Veneza water park which has nearly one million sq/ft of area, ten millions litres of water and lots of water slides for the youngsters.

Among Recife's main tourist attractions are:

José Estelita Wharf. Churches, historical monuments, public markets including 17th and 18th century constructions from Portuguese and Dutch colonisers; Francisco Brennand's atelier of ceramic art; Ricardo Brennand Institute: cultural institute with museum, pinacotec and library; Recife Antigo (Old Recife) buildings; Boa Viagem beach (the inside city's most important beach) and many beautiful beaches in the metropolitan and state area; Casa da Cultura: souvenir shops in an Historic prison building; RioMar Shopping. The Carnival at locations such as downtown and Recife Antigo; Olinda's historic town centre, considered a world heritage site by UNESCO; News and Historic Cinemas, Theatres and Art galleries. Shopping centers

Shopping Center Recife, the first Shopping Center in the North/Northeastern region, was inaugurated in 1980 through the initiatives of two large groups of entrepreneurs: Ancar and Ecisa. After twenty-three years and three expansion projects, Shopping Center Recife has been transformed into one of the largest in Latin America, and the first "mega-mall" in Northeastern Brazil.

With a total area of nearly two million square feet, 70% of which is mall-space, the shopping centre has 465 stores, 10 movie theatres, 8 restaurants, 4 food service courts with 57 fast food mini-restaurants, and 5,000 parking spaces available. 90,000 customers per day pass through its doors, while 32,400,000 consumers per year use the facilities.

Boa Viagem Beach.

Other shopping centres include:

Shopping Center Tacaruna. The first centre for purchases in the North/West zone of the Recife Metropolitan Region was inaugurated on April 29, 1997, with the intention of improving the economies the cities of Recife, Olinda, and Paulista. Shopping Paço da Alfândega Plaza Shopping Casa Forte was inaugurated in November 1998. Shopping RioMar was inaugurated in 2012. Beaches Main article: Pernambuco beaches

Recife beaches

Boa Viagem, Pina and Brasília Teimosa

Jaboatão beaches

Piedade, Candeias and Barra de Jangada

Olinda beaches

Rio Doce, Casa Caiada and Nossa Senhora do Ó

North beaches

Janga, Pau Amarelo, Conceição and Maria Farinha (with one of the largest water park in Brazil - Veneza water park (Paulista RMR) 18/29 km N Gavoa, Itamaracá and Jaguaribe. Itamaracá Island has many beaches such as Coroa do Avião, Forte Orange, Quatro cantos and Pontal (Itamaracá RMR) 30/45 km N


Law School of Recife (UFPE).

There are international schools, such as the American School of Recife and the ABA Maple Bear Canadian School.

Recife is home to several higher education institutions (83), notably several public-owned universities:

Universidade Federal de Pernambuco; UFPE (federal, free); Universidade Católica de Pernambuco; UNICAP (private, run by the Society of Jesus, paid); Universidade de Pernambuco; UPE (state-owned, free); Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco; UFRPE (federal, oriented to agriculture, free); Faculdade Integrada do Recife; FIR (private, paid); Faculdade Marista do Recife; FMR (private, run by the Marist congregation, paid) Faculdade Maurício de Nassau; FMN (private, paid) Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia de Pernambuco; IFPE (technological college, federal, free); Faculdade de Tecnologia de Pernambuco; FATEC-PE (technological college, state-owned, free).